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Social media comprises communication websites that facilitate relationship forming between users from diverse backgrounds, resulting in a rich social structure. User generated content encourages inquiry and decision-making. Given the relevance of social media to various stakeholders, it has received significant attention from researchers of various fields, including information systems. There exists no comprehensive review that integrates and synthesises the findings of literature on social media. This study discusses the findings of 132 papers (in selected IS journals) on social media and social networking published between 1997 and 2017. Most papers reviewed here examine the behavioural side of social media, investigate the aspect of reviews and recommendations, and study its integration for organizational purposes. Furthermore, many studies have investigated the viability of online communities/social media as a marketing medium, while others have explored various aspects of social media, including the risks associated with its use, the value that it creates, and the negative stigma attached to it within workplaces. The use of social media for information sharing during critical events as well as for seeking and/or rendering help has also been investigated in prior research. Other contexts include political and public administration, and the comparison between traditional and social media. Overall, our study identifies multiple emergent themes in the existing corpus, thereby furthering our understanding of advances in social media research. The integrated view of the extant literature that our study presents can help avoid duplication by future researchers, whilst offering fruitful lines of enquiry to help shape research for this emerging field.
social networking sites in india pdf download
When we refer to social media, applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and Instagram often come to mind. These applications are driven by user-generated content, and are highly influential in a myriad of settings, from purchasing/selling behaviours, entrepreneurship, political issues, to venture capitalism (Greenwood and Gopal 2015). As of April 2017, Facebook enjoys the exalted position of being the market leader of the social media world, with 1.97 billion monthly users (Statista 2017). In addition to posts, social media sites are bombarded with photo and video uploads, and according to the recent numbers, about 400 million snaps a day have been recorded on Snapchat, with around 9000 photos being shared every second (Lister 2017). While 50 million businesses are active on Facebook business pages, two million businesses are using Facebook advertising. Apparently, 88% businesses use Twitter for marketing purposes (Lister 2017).
Academics and practitioners have explored and examined the many sides of social media over the past years. Organizations engage in social media mostly with the aim of obtaining feedback from stakeholders (Phang et al. 2015). Consumer reviews are another big part of social media, bringing issues of information quality, credibility, and authenticity to the forefront. To a large extent, online communities have been successful in bringing together people with similar interests and goals, making the concept of micro blogging very popular. While most messages exchanged on social media sites are personal statuses or updates on current affairs, some posts are support seeking, where people are looking for assistance and help. Interestingly, these have been recognized as socially exhausting posts that engender social overload, causing other members to experience negative behavioural and psychological consequences, because they feel compelled to respond (Maier et al. 2015a).
In order to gain a deeper understanding of social media, we analyzed relevant abstracts that were downloaded from the Web of Science (WOS) database. Our search termsFootnote 1 yielded a total of 13,177 records, out of which 12,597 unique abstracts were obtained. The analysis of these records was undertaken in two steps. First, we used VOSviewer (Van Eck and Waltman 2011) to perform a co-citation analysis of first authors in the downloaded corpus. VOSviewer allows visualization of similarities in publications and authors through an examination of bibliometric networks. Furthermore, we used VOSviewer to analyze words derived from titles and abstracts. Second, we used Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) (see Blei 2012) to extract key thematic areas latent in the literature on social media. Further details about these analyses and results are presented in section 3.
Relevant articles were then identified and downloaded from each of the target journals by going through their archives. Specifically, all volumes and issues published in these journals between 1997 and 2017 were considered in our analysis. Articles, research notes, introductions, research commentaries, and editorial overviews relevant to social media were downloaded and numbered to prepare an APA style reference list. The first literature search resulted in 181 articles that had some relevance to the social media domain. A closer examination of individual abstracts and full articles led to the elimination of 49 irrelevant articles, thus giving us a total of 132 articles pertinent to the domain of interest (i.e., social media).
Cluster 7: The dominant theme here is the nature and content of communication. In particular, scholars in this cluster have focused on communication and response in the face of crises (Coombs), including image restoration after a controversy (Benoit), analysis and reliability of content (Krippendorff), and the use of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter by government agencies and non-profit organizations to engage stakeholders (Waters).
All of the aforementioned descriptions clearly regard social media as communication tools supported by internet-based technologies for dissemination of information. Most of them acknowledge the high concentration of user generated content across such platforms. Based on our understanding of social media and the aforementioned definitions, we propose the following definition: Social media is made up of various user-driven platforms that facilitate diffusion of compelling content, dialogue creation, and communication to a broader audience. It is essentially a digital space created by the people and for the people, and provides an environment that is conducive for interactions and networking to occur at different levels (for instance, personal, professional, business, marketing, political,and societal).
Publications have also shown interest in investigating the effects of user-generated content on entrepreneurial behaviour. For instance, Greenwood and Gopal (2015) find that discourse in both traditional and user-generated media has a notable influence on IT firm founding rates. Lundmark et al. (2016) reveal that higher usage of Twitter, alongside follower numbers and retweets result in higher levels of under pricing for initial public offerings (IPO). Trier and Richter (2015) find that online organizational networking has many unbalanced multiplex relationships, mostly comprising of weak ties and temporal change. They attribute the uneven user contribution in social networking sites to discourse drivers and information retrievers. Schlagwein and Hu (2016) identify collaboration, broadcast, dialogue, sociability, and knowledge management as the social media types that serve varied organizational purposes. Claussen et al. (2013) study Facebook to conclude that social media networks can exercise management not only by excluding participants, but also by driving softer changes in incentive/reward systems.
Social media sites are now a huge part of marketing tactics, and the documented studies are a good showcase of the extent to which social media is being integrated in marketing strategies. García-Crespo et al. (2010) study the continuous interaction between customers and organizations, as it impacts the social web environment with implications for marketing and new product development. Goh et al. (2013) study the user and market generated content for engagement in social media brand community to find that it has a positive impact on purchase expenditures. Rishika et al. (2013) demonstrate how higher social media activity directly correlates with higher participation and customer patronage. Aggarwal and Singh (2013) find that blogs help managers with their products in the screening stage, and also offer leverage in negotiating better contract terms. Dou et al. (2013) research optimizing the strength of a network by adjusting the embedded social media features with the right market seeding and pricing strategies.
These reviewed studies showcase that social networking encourages shared language and trust between employees in a workspace. Another emerging suggestion highlights that organizations should exercise policy, and use socialization and leadership-based mechanisms to counter any problems resulting from differing workplace values. Some of these studies show interest in the cognitive side of social ties that positively nurture social relationships and innovation performance.
In reviewing the publications gathered for this paper, commonalities have been observed in the myriad aspects of social media chosen for investigation. While many studies focussed their attention on understanding the behaviours of social media users, the others examined entrepreneurial participation and firm behaviour. A number of studies have focussed on the content being posted in online communities, several of which report on the repercussions of some of this content being used as an awareness medium during critical events and tragedies. Interesting revelations were made by authors studying the use of social media as a platform to render and/or receive help or support, and its incorporation in the field of healthcare and public administration. Value creation and the ill-effects associated with the use of social media at the workplace were also discussed. Several studies chose to test previously established hypotheses and models, while others compared traditional media with social media. Prior research has also provided insights into how firms have been using social media to market their products and services. These strategies run in parallel with the reviews and recommendations posted by users on social media sites, which have also received considerable attention in the literature. In summary, given that different types of social media platforms are emerging, and different consequences are associated with their use, research in this field will continue to evolve. This is also evidenced by the increased number of publications related to usage and impact over the past five years.